In England. Where’s the beef? At Barbacoa.

In general you don’t often see England on a list of food destinations. There is a certain stereotype connected with the British and their food. It is not that they don’t have some great chefs hailing from the British Isles — Marco Pierre White, Gordon Ramsey, Graham Kerr and Heston Blumenthal, to name a few — It is just that one doesn’t readily match the British with a particularly enticing dish in one’s mind. So when we left for England on our final “stage” of our year, I didn’t have have that glow of anticipation that I’ve had on our other trips.

Then I looked at our itinerary and saw that we would have lunch at Barbacoa (, a restaurant of Jaime Oliver’s. That was interesting. Jaime has made quite a name for himself with his work around school lunch programs and his food revolution. He is, of course, a celebrity chef with a large following. His TV shows and his campaigns are all about encouraging people to cook for themselves which will lead to a better tasting and healthier diet.

At Barbacoa Jaime has joined forces with Adam Perry Lang, a United States chef who has worked with Mario Batali at CarneVino restaurant in Las Vegas ( and has his own restaurant in New York City called Daisy May’s BBQ ( Adam is an expert in meat.

The restaurant, which looks over St. Paul’s Cathedral, is on the second floor of a downtown shopping mall. The restaurant is supplied by their own butcher shop downstairs that also sells meat, poultry and game.


Photos by Chelsea Lepore

The tie between the butcher shop and the restaurant is no surprise considering Adam’s keen interest in all things meat. He described in excited detail how he visits all of the farms where their meat comes from to understand how the meat is raised and to make sure that it is done in a sustainable fashion. He also regularly visits the abattoirs where the meat he buys is processed. He essentially supervises the slaughter and preparation of the carcasses that will be delivered to the Barbacoa butcher shop. He wants to assure that the meat is of the highest quality and is handled properly throughout the path from farm to table and this was evident as we enjoyed a good sized hamburger that had the taste of well aged beef.


What he said fit into what we had seen on our visit up to that point as we had visited three large organic farms. One, a biodynamic farm as well, had their own abattoir. We saw first hand how organic crops and animals could be raised well and how animals could be processed in a humane way. We were invited into the abattoir to watch the processing of cows as it occured. They had nothing to hide and they didn’t prohibit photography. The work environment and the handling of the animals looked much different than the view we often see and hear about…much better.

Adam went on to say that it is not just getting the best quality meat that concerns him. He also has a young daughter and he wants to make sure that the world for her will not be put at risk by unsustainable farming practices. This is where Adam’s narrative began to break apart a bit in my mind. He followed this with a response to a question asking how he sources his vegetables and does he pay the same kind of attention to where they come from and how they are grown? His response…”I don’t really care much about vegetables. Someone else takes care of them.” He said that it is not his job to try and educate people about how they should be eating. The restaurant’s purpose is to provide people the food that they want in the best possible way. The people that come to Barbacoa expect to get large portions of high quality meat cooked perfectly and that is what he delivers. Hummm…

You see, if you care about sustainability and creating a food system that will meet the needs of the future and provide a healthy way of eating for your daughters and sons, you have to think a little less about meat and a little more about vegetables. There are many people that worry about the expected world population of 9 billion that will soon be upon us. They are wondering how we can feed all of those people. We currently produce enough food calories to feed 1 1/2 times the present world population (or 10 billion people) and yet there are almost 1 billion people going hungry. In order to feed more people we don’t need to produce more food. We need to use less food in non-food activity, like producing ethanol. And we need to use less food in feeding animals instead of people. The feed conversion ratio (the amount of feed it takes to produce 1 kg of meat) for cattle is somewhere between 8:1 and 50:1 depending on how you calculate it. That means it takes at least 8 kg of feed to get 1 kg of meat. If we ate less meat (note that I’m not saying no meat) there would be more food available for all. But the per capita consumption of meat around the world is increasing .

I thought that surely this attitude was not in line with Jaime Oliver’s philosophy regarding food. After all he is very publically speaking out on eating in a healthier fashion and is working to decrease obesity and diabetes in children. He must have contradictory views on what this restaurant seemed to be embodying versus his healthy food movement. I went to his website expecting to find an expression that was different than what his restaurant, Barbacoa, represents in London. I visited Jaime’s web page and under Food Philosophy found the following:

“My philosophy to food and healthy eating has always been about enjoying everything in a balanced, and sane way. Food is one of life’s greatest joys yet we’ve reached this really sad point where we’re turning food into the enemy, and something to be afraid of. I believe that when you use good ingredients to make pasta dishes, salads, stews, burgers, grilled vegetables, fruit salads, and even outrageous cakes, they all have a place in our diets. We just need to rediscover our common sense: if you want to curl up and eat macaroni and cheese every once in a while – that’s alright! Just have a sensible portion next to a fresh salad, and don’t eat a big old helping of chocolate cake afterwards.

,,,So when I talk about having a ‘healthy’ approach to food, and eating better I’m talking about achieving that sense of balance: lots of the good stuff, loads of variety, and the odd indulgence every now and then.” (emphasis mine)

Perhaps this restaurant is intended not for regular visits, but for “the odd indulgence every now and then” of overly-large portions of meat. The restaurant is a business and successful businesses try hard to provide the best customer experience. One should not expect Barbacoa to do any less. However, if Chef Lang is truly concerned about his daughter’s food future and health, he should care a little more about vegetables.




Somehow it didn’t seem that life could get much better. I was in class touring food producers in the Italian region of Emilia Romagna. This is the land of Prosciutto di Parma, Parmigiano Reggiano, Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale (balsamic vinegar), lambrusco and ciccioli. Ciccioli? Well, this particular food can be a bit off-putting. Let me tell you a little about it.

We were at the “Cicciolo D’oro” association for demonstrations on pig butchering, salumi making, pasta making, and to enjoy a meal with the members of this association. A half of pig lay on the stainless steel table when we arrived and we were introduced to the men who would break this down into parts for making salumi and other meat items and to the women who would show us how to make pasta. Some of this was review for me as I had a similar pig experience in Minneapolis and we had been taught how to make pasta the evening before, but there was one new addition…ciccioli.

Ciccioli begins as a big section of the pig’s back fat. The fat is cut into cubes. The cubes are then taken outside and dropped into a very large pot over a very large flame where they are melted and then rendered for a couple of hours.


When the cubes get golden brown they are scooped out of the pot into a large cloth where they are wrung out by two men twisting the cloth around the fried fat and then the contents is sprinkled with a salt and seasoning mixture.



Then the golden cubes are put into a metal cylinder press with large holes, a metal disk is placed over them and they are pressed down, another layer of fat cubes is added, another metal disk, and it is repeated one more time. Then the top is put on the press and the entire contents are pressed down squeezing out all of the liquid fat and leaving only the browned ghosts of the fried fat cubes behind.


The four “cakes” formed by this press are broken up into pieces and served.


The whole idea of what you are eating is pretty disgusting. But, if it is so disgusting why is it that the package of ciccioli they presented each of us at the end of the evening is gone? Entirely eaten! It has something to do with the taste combination of crispy, salted, seasoned pork fat that is irrestible. Healthy? I’m guessing that it isn’t but that’s what walking 6 km to school every day is for.

Ciccioli, a new food to be looking for.


On being carfree and carless

We have lived in Italy for 5 months now and I have discovered something that has struck me as interesting. I really haven’t missed one of the icons of American life…the car. Some of you on reading the title for this posting probably thought that I had made some typographical or spelling errors and, I guess, I did. It should probably be car-free and car-less for you see we have not had a car at our disposal while living in Bra. We did, to be accurate, rent a car twice for 3 days at at time. Once when we went to Verona and later to travel around the surrounding area of Piemonte to visit the wine towns of the Barolo region. As part of our daily lives we do not use nor find a need for a car.


Granted, we live downtown in the “historic city center” of Bra. This means that we have within a few blocks almost all of the things we need for our basic survival. We live above a fish shop and across the street from a fresh pasta shop. We are a few doors down from a produce shop and across from what I fondly refer to as “our hardware store.” Going the other direction down our street and within a block or two are a pastry shop, a cheese and salumi shop, a meat market, a bakery, “our” coffee shop, a nice restaurant for whenever we want to celebrate something (every few weeks), and my barber. Actually, there are several pastry shops, bakeries, meat markets, produce stores, gelaterias (places to buy gelato), etc. within easy walking of our “flat.” No car needed for those. If we need to do some more extensive shopping there is the COOP about 6 blocks away or, for those times when sufficient just isn’t enough there is the Big Store (Yes, that’s what they call it in Italian!) which is about 2 miles away but you “have to” pass by a great gelateria on the way to or from there.


To get to school, which is about 4 miles away, I have been walking in the mornings when it is cool and taking the bus back in the afternoon when it is hot. I have a bus pass so the logistics are pretty easy. There have been a few times when class hasn’t ended near the time when the bus heads back from Pollenzo to Bra and I have had to 1) wait, 2) walk or 3) catch a ride with the 2 or 3 students that do have a car. In general, though, not having a car for school is not an issue.

So, what have I learned about not having a car vs having one? It really can be summed up in the title. Being “carless” can be felt to be a burden. “Less” means missing something…not whole. One could view that as being deprived of something. On the other hand, being “carfree” means free of the responsibility of having to depend on an oft undependable item with all its needs like fuel and parking. “Carfree” can truly mean “carefree.”


There have been very few times when we have felt ourselves to be “careless” about being “carless.” One is when we want to make a quick weekend trip to one of the quaint small towns that surround us and to which there does not appear to be any reasonable way to get to other than by car. We tried, for instance to walk to Cherasco, a nice town about 6 km from Bra…an easy walk. It would be easy, too, if there was a path to walk on that was not in the direct path of cars and semi-trucks. We got to within about one kilometer of the town and found that a bridge separated us from our destination. There was no way to cross the bridge on foot. I tried and had to turn around and return after only a dozen feet or so while a semi-truck was stopped, holding up busy traffic, waiting for my retreat. Biking would be equally as treacherous. Many of the students have bikes but I haven’t found a need for one. The issue of safely riding a bike on highways is the same and bikes have been stolen.


So, we are car-less and do not feel deprived. We have learned to navigate the train and bus schedules and have come to enjoy traveling, on trains (mostly) or buses. It can be freeing having nothing to worry about except watching the countryside or reading or writing this blog posting…completely carefree.



Posted on the train from Trieste to Milano.

Green Harvest

Saturday promised to be sunny and hot as we were driven to the La Spinetta Campe winery near the town of Grinzane Cavour in the Piemonte region of Italy. We were going to La Spinetta to participate in the green harvest. Gathering in the tasting room with about 18 others from Switzerland, Denmark, and Belgium we were welcomed by Anja Cramer, (responsible for marketing), Giorgio Rivetti (the wine maker and co-owner), Giovanna (Giorgio’s sister, vineyard supervisor and cook), and Manuela Rivetti (Italian sales and winery visits). We were given background on La Spinetta, a family owned and run winery ( The work we would be doing that morning was some of the most important work done in the vineyards and involves cutting off almost half of the clusters of green grapes from the vines. This work is done before the grapes start to turn color and is done so that the plant provides all of its energy to fewer grapes. It reduces the quantity of wine produced significantly but increases the quality. La Spinetta is all about the quality where as other commercial wineries are more concerned on the volume of wine produced.



We were given aprons and cutters and headed for the vineyard. There we met the part of the field crew that works for La Spinetta for harvest, pruning, thinning, and green harvest. They are all very skilled at what they do and are supervised by Giovanna.


Divided into groups of 5 or 6 we were assigned to one or two of these workers. Giovanna showed how they wanted to have about 5 or 6 grape clusters remaining on each vine, though it depended on the age of the vine and the size of the clusters. Some of the clusters were long and we were to cut them shorter so that the remaining grapes would do better.


The thinning had the functions of making fewer clusters so that each received more nourishment but also to create space between clusters so that they would stay dry. If clusters are too close together and it rains they do not dry well and then mold forms and ruins the grapes. After the demonstrations we were ready to work under the watchful eye of the skilled workers. When we would have a question about whether or not to cut off a cluster we would say, “Questo? (this one)” and get a “si” or “no” or “corto” (shoren it). It was a little unnerving to think that each cluster cut would be less wine, Barolo in this case, made.




Our group would move down the row each taking a vine to harvest and then when done moving past the last one down the row to select another vine. There is another vineyard between two of La Spinetta’s properties that is not owned by them. The owner is not a winemaker and sell the grapes to other winemakers. He does not do green harvest and you could see the vines thick with green grape clusters. For this grower it is all about production of a lot of grapes. Giorgio said that the winemakers who buy these grapes are not farmers and by not being farmers they don’t understand that the quality of the wine begins in the vineyard.


Just when it seemed we were getting the hang of it we stopped for lunch. Lunch was served at the ciabót, a little hut or house in the vineyards where the vignaioli used to store their tools and take their breaks in the heat of the day. Lunch was simple, but delicious “finger food” prepared by Giovanna accompanied by La Spinetta wines (of course!).



It was a good time to relax, eat, drink wine, meet and talk with the other people there and to enjoy the lush green view across Barolo wine country.



Then it was back down the hill to the winery to turn in our cutters and back to the hotel to clean up and rest before dinner.



Dinner was in Canelli at the Contratto winery. Contratto is a very old sparkling winery that was acquired by La Spinetta very recently. The winery is built into the side of a large hill and consists of multilevel tunnels dug into the hill. The winery was built over a 100 years ago without the machinery or technology we have now and it is very impressive to see how well it was constructed. I forgot to bring my camera in the evening so I cannot show you just how beautiful the facility is. They still use the manual process for “riddling” (getting the yeast into the neck of the bottle so it can be expelled before the final bottling.) All of the large sparkling wine companies have machines that do that now. We had a demonstration of riddling from a man that has worked there for 30 years. There soon will not be anyone with those skills around.

We had aperitivos in a underground tasting room (with some Contratto sparking wine, of course). Then we returned above ground to what was once a restaurant on part of the winery where we had a lovely meal prepared by Giovanna accompanied by several La Spinetta wines.

We were fortunate of be sitting by Giorgio and were treated to many stories. It is clear that they are passionate about their wine making and they work very hard to product the best wines that they can. One of the other guests told us that a La Spinetta had been rated the second best Barolo in Italy and was ranked among the best wines in the world. The evening ended with a 2004 Barolo Reserve and it couldn’t have ended better.


(for more pictures go to:

Birthday in Puglia

Some of you have asked, “So what did you do on your birthday in Italy?” Well, actually nobody asked that but it serves as a good lead in to a very late posting. My birthday fell on the day our class went to Puglia for our first regional stage.


Puglia forms the “heel” of the “boot” that makes up Italy. I knew very little about it before going there but found it to be a fascinating place. Some quick facts about Puglia include that it produces about 40% of the olive oil in Italy (and Italy is the number 2, after Spain, producer in the world). It also produces a lot of wine. It is famous for orecchiette pasta which is often eaten with turnip tops. It used to be that the olive oil produced in Puglia was used primarily for lamps. It was not considered to be of a grade good enough for eating. When oil burning lamps became less popular, with the advent of electric light, the olive oil that was good enough was blended with olive oil from other places and the rest sent to refineries where it was processed into plain olive oil. Now the region has focused on olive oil production with newer methods and they are producing some top grade extra virgin olive oils. They still are not well known due to their past reputation for poor quality oil production.


Likewise they produce a lot of wine. Their vineyards are located on hot, flat plains and for years the high volume of wine they produced was shipped to others for distilling or mixing with other wines. Now they are developing better wine making methods and turning out some excellent wines based primarily on the Negroamaro, Primitivo (probably the same grape as Zinfandel), Nero di Trola, and Chardonnay grapes. They have attracted the attention of outside wine makers who have been buying Puglian vineyards and wineries.


The region of Puglia that we visited is most notable for the fields of large, old, twisted olive trees that are seen everywhere. We also were in the region where the distinctive Trulli architecture is seen. Trulli are conical roofed buildings that are homes as well as barns and sheds. We visited the town of Alberobello ( where much of the town is made up of Trulli.




Our first day in Puglia was rainy and cold so we cut short our afternoon to get ready for dinner…my birthday dinner… We ate at the Fornello Antico Borgo ( which, you can tell by reading their website, specializes in roasted meat. We also had a wine maker there from Feudi San Marzano Winery to present the wines we were served to compliment our meal. We had a nice antipasta of cured meat and cheese, a tripe soup, some braised donkey and, of course roasted meats of various types. That was followed by a dessert platter and I got birthday cakes with candles. I took bites of my cakes before I thought of photographing them so what you see is what was left. The wine maker also gave me a nice bottle of Primitivo.



Much of our trip was arranged by the President of Slow Food Puglia (and a radiologist), Michele Bruno, who is on the left in this photo with the wine maker.




Our class isn’t really known for being scholarly and sedate and this dinner was no exception. I don’t know if it was the giddiness of being in Puglia or being in the presence of a pretty old birthday boy or if Chris was simply looking to score a bottle of good Puglian wine (which she did). But she somehow ended up…well, the picture says it all.



It was a great birthday and it was only our first day in Puglia.



Cooking Class

When I would tell people that I was going to Italy to study Gastronomy, many assumed I meant that I was going to a cooking school to learn how to cook Italian cuisine. Though that would be fun, and perhaps could be another trip someday, it is not what I came to study. I am studying in a Masters program in Food Culture and Communications. It is more about the history of food, food production, sensory analysis of food and beverages, communication techniques, etc. However, when the opportunities arise to learn more about how to cook Italian food I will try to take advantage of them. June and I had such an opportunity this week when we joined four of my classmates going to a cooking class.

Buon Appetito Bra is a “cooking school” that is run by 3 women, Francesca, Licia, and Chiara, who are in the two year Masters program at the University of Gastronomy. They are from three different regions of Italy — Puglia, Tuscany, and Emilia-Romagna — which gives them a fairly broad view of Italian cuisine. They are not professional cooks. They attained their skills and learned the recipes cooking with their “nonna” (grandmother). Their classes are very informal and “on demand” by which I mean that they are arranged for any particular group when that group finds it convenient to get together. They are also receptive to teaching a particular dish upon request (ahead of time, of course).

This night we were learning how to make a couple kinds of bread, Crostini neri Toscani, Piadina Romagnola Tradizionale, and Crostata di frutta. The Piadina is a flat bread. It is traditionally made with flour, lard, water, and a little salt. It is kneaded, divided into smaller balls, rolled out then cooked on a hot metal plate (griddle).


It is generally served accompanied by Squaquarone and rucola. Squaquarone is a soft, white spreadable cheese. Rucola is arugula.


The Crostini neri Toscani consists of a spread made from chicken liver and calf spleen that are sauteed in olive oil with onion and celery. Some red wine is added and that is cooked down. Then parsley is added and the mixture is put in a food processor to make the spread. This is then spread on toasted slices of bread.


The two wines we were served, a rosé and a red wine were from Tuscany and were from the family of one of our instructors. We had a plate of roasted vegetables to accompany our other dishes.


The last dish, dessert, was the Crostata di Fruitta, a fruit tart. We learned how to make a sweet dough that was rolled out, cut into circles and pressed into a cupcake type pan. This was baked. We made a custard infused with lemon peel to fill the cups and they were topped with sliced strawberry. For our meal they had prepared the same dish but as a pie so we had slices of that.


The class was a lot of fun, we learned to make and appreciate some Italian regional dishes and it was all delicious, even the chicken liver and calf spleen spread. At the very end we were handed “doggie bag” of leftovers to take home (none of the spread, though, as it was all eaten).


We will certainly be signing up for more of these classes.That way when I return I can reinforce the mistaken belief that I came to Italy to learn to cook.


LavAzza – Java Jive

Today we visited LavAzza. LavAzza is the largest coffee company in Italy and has a world wide distribution. They say there are 14 billion cups of LavAzza coffee consumed in a year around the world. They are also known for their training centers where they train baristas and others in the coffee industry. They have training centers in 27 countries around the world.


We were greeted by Daniele Modaffari who served as our instructor and guide for the day. We started the morning with coffee, of course, that Daniele prepared in an efficient manner and which was quite good.


In the training room Daniele told us about the history of the company that was started by Luigi Lavazza as a grocery store and how he began to specialize in coffee until that was all he produced and sold. In those days green coffee beans were what was available and housewives would buy them and then have to roast and brew them. Luigi began roasting coffee beans and selling them that way and it proved to be a successful idea. He also created the first blends of coffee in the market and soon became the top Italian coffee importer and roaster. He introduced the parchment packaging (“Pergamin”) to preserve the coffee flavor. Although it is a “joint-stock” company, all the shares are owned by the family and family members form the leadership team of the company. The statistics on the companies growth and market share were impressive.

He talked about coffee from the plant to the harvesting to the processing. It was a morning full of interesting information followed by a very good lunch in the company cafeteria.


After lunch we donned hats and paper gowns and toured the production plant where the statistics of how much coffee they unloaded into their silos, moved, roasted packaged, stored and shipped each day was mind boggling.


We are talking about millions of tons. Aside from the manual unloading of bags of green coffee from some countries (most of their coffee arrives in tank trucks that are automatically unloaded), all of their processes are automated and require few people.

After the tour the fun part really began. We were shown and sampled some of the innovative coffee “recipes” that have been developed in their Innovation Center in collaboration with other creative individuals such as Ferran Adriá, celebrated chef of El Bulli. They showed us a espresso that wouldn’t pour from the cup. It was made of foam and was eaten with a spoon.


Then they showed us how to make an espresso “caviar” which they served on a dollop of whipped cream.


Then they gave us an “air espresso” that was made as semi-frozen espresso with milk, added to a whipped cream canister and extruded and then frozen. It had the effect of when you put it into your mouth it would disappear leaving only an espresso taste behind.


The last thing they showed us was a new double-walled cup and funnel they developed and will be releasing in a few days. You fill the funnel with crushed ice and pour a freshly brewed espresso with two sugar packets in it into the funnel above the cup and in 30 seconds you have an espresso that has gone from very hot to refreshing cold. Cold coffee is popular in Italy in the summer but usually doesn’t taste that good. This was good.


All in all it was an interesting and tasty day. I think I can understand how I am now able stay up so late writing this after this day full of coffee. For more photos you can follow this link .